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Relevant Studies


  • Douglas B. Berkey and Frank A. Scannapieco, “Medical Considerations Relating to the Oral Health of Older Adults,” Special Care in Dentistry, Vol. 33, No. 4, August 2013, 164-176.
  • Christopher S. Girod, Scott A. Weltz and Susan K. Hart, “2015 Milliman Medical Index,” May 19, 2015,
  • Catherine Hayes, David Sparrow, Michel Cohen, Pantel S. Vokonas, Raul I. Garcia, “The Association Between Alveolar Bone Loss and Pulmonary Function: The VA Dental Longitudinal Study,” Annals of Periodontology, Vol. 3, No. 1, August 1998, 257-261.
  • Marjorie K. Jeffcoat, Robert L. Jeffcoat, Patricia A. Gladowski, James B. Bramson, Jerome J. Blum, “Impact of Periodontal Therapy on General Health: Evidence From Insurance Data for Five Systemic Conditions,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Vol. 47, No. 2, August 2014, 166-174.
  • Michael J. Kanellis, Peter C. Damiano, Elizabeth T. Momany, “Medicaid Costs Associated with the Hospitalization of Young Children for Restorative Dental Treatment Under General Anesthesia,” Journal of Public Health Dentistry, Vol. 60, No. 1, March 2000, 28-32.
  • Uma Kelekar, Ph.D., “Economic Costs of Oral Care in the United States in 2014,” 2015.
  • “National Health Expenditure Data,” Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services,
  • Matthew F. Savage, Jessica Y. Lee, Jonathan B. Kotch, William F. Vann, Jr., “Early Preventive Dental Visits: Effects on Subsequent Utilization and Costs,” Pediatrics, Vol. 114, No. 4, October 2004.
  • Carrie Sona, Jeanne Zack, Marilyn E. Schallom, Maryellen McSweeney, Kathleen M. McMullen, James Thomas, “The Impact of a Simple, Low-Cost Oral Care Protocol on Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Rates in a Surgical Intensive Care Unit,” Journal of Intensive Care Medicine, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan-Feb 2009, 54-62.
  • The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2013.
  • Thomas Wall and Marko Vujicic, “Emergency Department Use for Dental Conditions Continues to Increase,” Health Policy Institute Research Brief, American Dental Association, April 2015.

Dental Sealants


  • “Diabetes Complications,” Mayo Clinic,
  • “Diabetes and Oral Health Problems,” American Diabetes Association,
  • “Statistics About Diabetes,” American Diabetes Association,
  • Wenya Yang, Timothy M. Dall, Pragna Halder, Paul Gallo, Stacey L. Kowal, Paul F. Hogan, “Economic Costs of Diabetes in the U.S. in 2012,” Diabetes Care, Vol. 36, No. 4, April 2013, 1033-1046.